Thursday, May 21, 2020

Famine, Affluence and Morality by Pete Singer - 1045 Words

In the article, â€Å"Famine, Affluence, and Morality†, Pete Singer, a Utilitarian, argues that citizens in affluent countries such as the United States have a moral obligation to give up as much as they can for famine relief. Singer’s contention in his article is that the way we morally conduct ourselves ought to be reappraised. (Singer, 230). I Singer’s argument, and in this paper, I will examine the distinction between duty and charity, compare both deontological and consequential theories of ethics, and address Immanuel Kant and Pete Singer’s similarities and their utilitarian resolution to such problems. I will conclude how we have a moral duty to relieve suffering in the world, and why it is wrong if we abstain from our moral obligation. In his article, Famine, Affluence, and Morality, Singer tries to emphasize the importance of helping those in need. He believes that if it is in our power to prevent something bad from happening without sacrificing anything else of moral importance then we have a moral obligation to do it. (Singer, 231). By this, Singer means that each and every one of us has the power to prevent the terrible things that negatively affects the world. For example, if we are in a situation where we have the ability to prevent something morally wrong from happening but we let it pass by, he describes this as not just laziness but moral wrongdoing. Singer argues if you come across a child who is drowning and it is easy to wade in and rescue the child but byShow MoreRelatedWe Should Set Limits On Moral Obligation1398 Words   |  6 PagesIan Parker discusses a personal story of a man named Zell Kravinsky that had given almost his entire fortune and kidney under moral obligation. The â€Å"big questionâ €  that will be evaluated in this paper is there important limits to how much do-gooding morality can ask of us? If so, how much can it ask of us to sacrifice for others? This question had placed great influence on Zell Kravinsky story and it is important we evaluate his arguments for moral obligation can ask of us. In this essay I intend to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

An Inhabitant Of Carcosa By Ambrose Bierce - 914 Words

In one of Ambrose Bierce s short story, An Inhabitant of Carcosa, an unknown narrator recalls his experience on traveling across an unfamiliar wilderness. How does he learn through it with his sense of perception or consciousness? Who is the narrator and why does he narrate his journey into or out of an unknown reality? These questions manipulate the reader that limits our human senses and perception when this narrator does not know what things he has seen or heard. The short section on page 58 describes the narrator s journey to a full extent because the narration contains imagery and meaningful symbols/motifs that would help us understand the prose that emphasizes the mystery behind the narrator s self-realization. Throughout the narrator s journey, he has nowhere to go in the wilderness because he felt a sense of exhilaration and vigor altogether unknown to me- a feeling of mental and physical exaltation (58). The narrator recalls his experience through the wilderness as mysteriou s and unsettling in which he encounters strange illusions or sounds he has not seen nor heard. At first, he observes the wilderness as a land of doom filled with cold air, and he does not hear any natural sounds of animals or people from within. Also, he becomes more doubtful about the wilderness as more silence breaks into the story further. Along the way, the narrator tries to relax his thoughts because his senses seemed all alert and he could feel the air as a ponderous

Who or What Is Responsible for the Downfall of Macbeth Free Essays

â€Å"Who or what is responsible for the downfall of Macbeth† â€Å"For brave Macbeth–well he deserves that name– Disdaining fortune, with his brandish’d steel, Which smoked with bloody execution, Like valour’s minion carved out his passage Till he faced the slave; Which ne’er shook hands, nor bade farewell to him,Till he unseam’d him from the nave to the chaps,And fix’d his head upon our battlements. † – Act 1 scene II â€Å"The tragedy of Macbeth† is one of William Shakespeare’s most famous plays about a man who murders his king and continues to commit other acts of villainy to secure his position of power. The broad spectrum for the downfall of Macbeth would include the three witches, Lady Macbeth and who else but Macbeth himself. We will write a custom essay sample on Who or What Is Responsible for the Downfall of Macbeth or any similar topic only for you Order Now For it is his own ambitious nature, insecurity and fear that drives him into creating his own ruination. Our first impression of the character Macbeth is through the words of others, the wounded sergeant who praises him for his valor. This is followed by Duncan’s words of praise as he refers to him as â€Å"O valiant cousin! worthy gentleman! †. However these heroic accolades do not seem to last long as our perception of his character is tainted after his meeting with the witches. Macbeth is shown to be entranced by the prophecies made by the witches and moves through a dreamlike state and seems to be â€Å"possessed† or in a trance (whether it being literal or simply an act of his own doubts this is debatable). Some may see Macbeth simply as a puppet being controlled by supernatural forces as he is twice described to be â€Å"rapt† and be quick to blame his downfall on a twisted turn of fate, or inedibility. Though the witches are held responsible for the initial inception of the idea, judging that Macbeth is one of sound mind and body, he should be strong willed enough to be able to resist temptations. In fact his inability to do so, is further echoed in our hearts by the comparison between his and Banquo’s reaction. After the second prophecy becomes true, Macbeth’s first thoughts turn to murder. He demonstrates his terror at having these thoughts and â€Å"horrible imaginings† enter his mind, with his heart â€Å"knocking at his ribs†. From this e can gather that Macbeth would have originally possessed the ambitious murderous nature that proceeds to take over, giving the readers a glimpse at his â€Å"darker side†. His earlier thoughts of betrayal can also be seen from his reaction to Duncan naming Malcom his successor. â€Å"Stars, hide your fires; / Let not light see my black and deep desires: / The eye wink at the hand! yet let that be, /† M acbeth is disappointed in Duncan’s choice and once again thinks about murder to gain kingship, a clear example of how his ambition begins to brew within him. Though Macbeth is ultimately responsible for his own tragedy, Shakespeare paints the roles of women in the play as evil, manipulative and ambitious, even going far enough to push past traditional female virtues to create characters that enrich the plot. Exploring the relationship between gender, masculinity and power, bringing in ideals of bravery, power, violence and force of will. A correlation between manhood and displays of violence and cruelty is also heavily implied by the characters. Throughout the play Lady Macbeth is seen as a frighteningly manipulative woman, as she constantly emasculates her husband. Knowing of his desperation to prove his manliness, she calls him a coward and insults his manliness, Macbeth falls a dumb victim to this manipulation. Many argue that since Shakespeare’s treatment of women is misogynistic, the women of this play must be held responsible as it is heavily implied that women are the cause for the bloody action of this play, however this is not the case. Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are the heart of the play, as it is only through their ambitious nature which drives the bloody motion in the play forward. However later on in the play, Macbeth is shown to act more willfully, shown by his improvisations on the morning of Duncan’s murder, his decision to murder Banquo and Fleance, his decision to kill Macduff’s wife and child and even acts indifferently to the news of his wife’s death. He begins to gradually isolate himself from his wife, clearly indicating how he has cut all ties with Lady Macbeth as his lust for kingship takes over and consumes him, once again acting upon his own free will. Though a man of unspeakable evil, Macbeth differs from the traditional Shakespearean villain as he is unable to completely conquer his feelings of guilt and self doubt, enabling a much more complex emotional turmoil, displaying the dramatic collapse from what he was to what he became. Throughout the play, Shakespeare brings out the ambivalent personality of Macbeth (this being particularly obvious in the early stages after certain encounters with women) as blind ambition obliterates his earlier attributes as he comes out as a tyrant. His ambitious nature has clearly lead to ill effects upon himself, as he becomes tempted with these ideals and becomes a tyrant. Throughout the play, Macbeth’s dialogue and actions showcase his overwhelming guilt (appearing in physical forms of apparitions and hallucinations). Demonstrating that Macbeth is fully aware of his wrongdoings and understands that his actions are corrupt. Despite the guilt that is driving him insane, Macbeth makes no effort in stopping his wrongdoings. â€Å"All causes shall give way:/ I am in blood Stepp’d in so far that, /should I wade no more, /Returning were as tedious as go o’er†/. Bringing out his underlying characteristics within his personality, allowing to readers to understand that his subsequent acts of murder are motivated by his fear and insecurity over loosing his kingship and of the discovery of his crimes. Macbeth demonstrates that he has a conscious and knows his thoughts are immoral and evil, â€Å"My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical, / Shakes so my single state of man that function / Is smother’d in surmise; and nothing is / But what is not†. In spite of all of these , Macbeth makes no attempt to repent or reverse his situation and is therefore responsible for his own tragedy. In conclusion, Macbeth himself is responsible for his own downfall for several reasons. Though the witches’ predictions are responsible for initiating his downward spiral, Macbeth was the one who first thought about killing Duncan. Lady Macbeth’s ruthless ambition and manipulative nature influenced his thoughts, however it was Macbeth that allowed his wife to gain so much control over him, allowing her influence and putting power into her hands (though eventually cutting all ties with her and acting out of his own evilness). His ruthless ambition drives him to violence, his insecurities about his masculinity allows him to be manipulated and his lack of courage stops him from trying to reverse or resist his own tragedy. That is why, Macbeth must be solely responsible for his downfall. â€Å"Out, out, brief candle! / Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player,/That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, / And then is heard no more. / It is a tale /Told by an idiot, / full of sound and fury,? Signifying nothing. /† – Act V, scene V How to cite Who or What Is Responsible for the Downfall of Macbeth, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Logic and Correct Answer Essay Example

Logic and Correct Answer Essay The most direct way to gather objective information about children is to observe them in the course of their everyday lives and record what happens. Since the presence of a stranger (that is, the researcher) is likely to be intrusive in many situations, the ideal strategy is to arrange to have the children observed by someone who ordinarily spends time with them? a parent or teacher, for example. (Michael Cole and Sheila R. Cole, The Development of Children) | | Selected Answer:|   Ã‚   The ideal strategy is to arrange to have the children observed by someone who ordinarily spends time with them? parent or teacher, for example. | Correct Answer:|   Ã‚   The ideal strategy is to arrange to have the children observed by someone who ordinarily spends time with them? a parent or teacher, for example. | | Question 2 | 3 out of 3 points    | | Cows milk is hardly the perfect food, as the American Dairy Association would have us believe. Whole milk consumed in large quantities can rai se blood cholesterol levels and contribute to heart disease. Studies have indicated a connection between the sugars in milk and ovarian cancer. The proteins in cows milk can cause the body to develop antibodies that can lead to diabetes, and in a fourth of the population milk causes bloating, flatulence, and sometimes diarrhea. (Jane Brody, Debate over Milk: Time to Look at the Facts) | | | | | Selected Answer:|   Ã‚   Cows milk is hardly the perfect food, as the American Dairy Association would have us believe. | Correct Answer:|   Ã‚   Cows milk is hardly the perfect food, as the American Dairy Association would have us believe. | | | | | Question 3 | 3 out of 3 points    | | The significance of meat eating for future human evolution was enormous. We will write a custom essay sample on Logic and Correct Answer specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Logic and Correct Answer specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Logic and Correct Answer specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

The Central Tension In `Volpone Involves A Conflict Between Moral And Immoral Behaviour Essays

The Central Tension In `Volpone Involves A Conflict Between Moral And Immoral Behaviour Essays The Central Tension In `Volpone Involves A Conflict Between Moral And Immoral Behaviour Paper The Central Tension In `Volpone Involves A Conflict Between Moral And Immoral Behaviour Paper Essay Topic: Play The play `Volpone; written by Ben Jonson in 1606 centres itself around a conflict between moral purpose. The play itself contains so many un-likable characters that it is difficult at first to see how everyone can receive their just desserts as befitting of Jacobean drama. Does this play however have a final moral direction? At the end of the play; all concerned are judged by one means or another. However the punishments arguably do not fit the crimes and so therefore can we say that the play has a moral purpose? The play itself begins with Volpone seemingly unable to simply enjoy his wealth and prosperity. He and his servant Mosca have a plan already formed to increase Volpones wealth by pretending that he is dying in order to draw forth various prospective heirs. Who in their avaricious aspirations will bring Volpone gifts. `Now, now my clients / Begin their visitation! Vulture, kite, / Raven, and gor crow, all my birds of prey. (Volpone, Act I, Sc 2, ln 87-89, Norton 7th Edition.) Immediately we have a scene which should be quite settled, yet it is not. Each of the `harpies {Volpone, Act I Sc 2 ln 122) refers to one of Volpones potential heirs. They are like birds of prey waiting to swoop on the corpse. (Peck And Coyle, Practical Criticism, pp 185.) Throughout the first Act we are introduced to all four scavengers. Voltore, the vulture; Corbaccio, the raven; Corvino, the crow and Lady Politic Would-Be, the kite. It takes us until Act II to meet anyone who possesses any morality whatsoever. This we have in the form of the unfortunate Celia. She is wife to the jealous Corvino who compares himself to `the Pantalone di Bisognosi (Volpone Act II sc 3 ln 7.) This was a man `in perpetual fear of being cuckolded (Norton 7th Edition footnote pp1332.) However `Did eer man haste so for his horns? (Volpone, Act III Sc 7 Ln 4 Norton 7th Edition) In his greed Corvino attempts to force his own wife to have intercourse with Volpone in order that he will then become his heir. This goes beyond simple immorality. It shows the mental state of the main characters and their ideology that everything (including those they are supposed to love) is there for them to possess. Jonson shows us the way in which avarice has begun to consume the lives of the main characters thus `emphasizing that the plays stance on greed is a didactic one, intended to teach the audience what greeds real consequences are. ( However, let us consider the fourth act trial. This is where morality meets immorality in court over Volpones attempted rape of Celia; (only prevented by Corbaccios son Bonario who is disinherited by his father.) The trial `starts with justice and concludes with a perversion of it. (The Double Plot In Volpone, Barish, Modern Philology.) Here immorality triumphs; albeit not for very long as we see in the final act; yet the message conveyed to the audience is that it is possible for these characters evade punishment for their despicable actions. Why is it then that Jonson has another trial sequence in Act V in which to finally punish the immoral and reward the virtuous? What moral purpose does it serve to see Celia and Bonario punished while the `animalia ( of fox, fly, vulture, raven, crow and kite are free to continue with their own avaricious purposes? We must remember that it is not the greed of Corbaccio, Corvino and Voltore that bring about their own downfall; it is that of Mosca and the stupidity of Volpone that construct this. It is Moscas greed and lust for power that leads to the downfall of all as he becomes Volpones heir and when pronouncing Volpone dead, becomes the lord and master. It is in his greed that he will not relinquish his power. To a certain extent; has he not earned this power? Mosca `the parasite (Volpone Act V Sc 12 Ln 107 Norton 7th Edition); has been the most cunning of all and played on the sinful nature of the wealthy to feed his own designs for prosperity. He is willing however, to share with Volpone; it is this transaction that forces Mosca to attempt to seize control of all Volpones wealth as oppose to the half which he desires. In order to answer the question does the play Volpone have a moral purpose ; we need to consider the conclusion. All punishment is distributed at the very end of the play. Mosca is deemed to be `the chiefest minister, if not plotter, / In all these lewd impostures; and now, lastly, / Have with your impudence abused the court, / And habit of a gentleman of Venice, / Being of no birth or blood: / For which our sentence is, first, thou be whipped; / Then live perpetual prisoner in our galleys. (Volpone Act V Sc 12 Ln 108 114 Norton 7th Edition.) His greatest crime appears to be that he has impersonated a gentleman when he is not one. `Moscas sentence is most severe because of his class (Norton 7th Edition footnote no.6 pp1392) Volpone is not punished in the same way as he is a gentleman. However he is led away to the prisons of Venice until he is `sick and lame indeed (Volpone At V Sc12 Ln 124.) However if we take a look at the footnotes in the Norton Anthology we are told that `the dungeons of Venice were reputed to be the most horrible in Europe, neither Mosca or Volpone is long for this world. (Norton 7th Edition footnote no. 8 pp 1392.) Our two main characters have virtually been sentenced to death for their crimes. Consider their fates against those of Corbaccio and Corvino. Corbaccio attempts to disinherit his son in his greed for Volpones wealth, destroys his family, nearly has his son sent to prison with Celia. Corbaccios punishment is to surrender his wealth to his son and live in a monastery. Corvino, who agreed to the very near rape of his own wife, is sent to the pillory and his wife is returned to her father. A reasonably light punishment for the most immoral man of them all. On the surface the play does have a moral purpose in the sense that all immoral characters are punished and the moral characters are rewarded. As we are told at the end of the play `Mischiefs feed / Like beasts, till they be fat, and then they bleed. (Volpone Act V Sc 12 Ln 150 151 Norton 7th Edition.) Is it not true that apart from his attempted rape of Celia, he has really only acted on the greed of others; immorality that was already present. Yet Volpone is virtually sentenced to death whilst Corvino the man who would have allowed his wife to be raped by this man simply has to spend a little time in the pillory. Celia herself who has been through the biggest trial of all receives her freedom as her compensation. Her dowry money is trebled when she is returned to her father yet she would not be the one to use it. Bonario by comparison receives the entirety of his fathers wealth. This is of course, a mere reflection on social ideology of the period. Women would have been second rate citizens without question. However it does illustrate that although the moral purpose in Volpone is apparent in the traditional way that the play ends ie the moral prosper, the immoral do not; it is done to a questionable extent. The punishments given out undermine true morality, certainly biblical morality a sin is a sin in any guise and the conventional morality we have now. There may have been a moral purpose to the play; yet there is no moral relevance to today.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Internet Initialisms

Internet Initialisms Internet Initialisms Internet Initialisms By Maeve Maddox Although I’ve adopted a few initialisms such as BTW, LOL, and IMHO in my own informal writing, I’m mostly ignorant of the alphabet soup current on Twitter and other social media sites. When a reader recently introduced me to the combination DRTL, I realized that this new language represents not just a kind of shorthand, but also a new philosophy of written language. This particular construct, DRTL, seems to me to symbolize the new philosophy: DRTL = Didn’t Read, Too Long. Note: A more common version of DRTL is TLDR or tl;dr, meaning too long; didnt read. Strings of commonly understood letter combinations such as FYI (For your information), TGIF (Thank God it’s Friday), and ASAP (As soon as possible) pre-date the Internet, of course, but they never occurred in the profusion that exists now. Readers who share my lack of currency in Abbreviation-Speak may find the following list useful. AFAIK: As far as I know AIUI: As I understand it BTDT: Been there, Done that BTW: By the way F2F: Face to face FOAF: Friend of a friend FWIW: For What it’s worth GAL: Get a life GIGO: Garbage In, Garbage Out HTH: Hope that helps IANAL: I am not a lawyer ICYMI: In case you missed it IIRC: If I recall correctly IMHO: In my humble opinion IMO: In my opinion IRL: In real life ISTM: It seems to me JK (also J/K) Just kidding LOL: Laughing out loud OMG: Oh, My God OTOH: On the other hand OTT: Over the top STW: Search the Web TIL: Today I learned TMI Too much information TTYL: Talk to you later WYSIWYG: What you see is what you get Of course this list is a mere scratching of the surface. And I’ve deliberately left out the ones that contain a gratuitous F. Nevertheless, even a short list may help a few codgers navigate Twitter with a little more comprehension. HTH. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:When to Capitalize Animal and Plant Names8 Types of Parenthetical PhrasesUsing "zeitgeist" Coherently

Friday, February 14, 2020

Consumer behavior Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Consumer behavior - Article Example The consumers tend to involve themselves in the products and follow up on the progress of the offers. An example of enduring involvement is a motorcycle enthusiast who constantly researches about motorcycles to find the best models. Further, enduring involvement is characterized by substantial interest in activities that boost the enthusiasm. Such activities include going to motor showrooms to check the models in the market. Situational involvement occurs when a consumer is interested in a product for a short time. The situation happens mostly as a result of need or demand for a certain commodity. The consumer may not have information or necessarily be interested in a long term involvement and looks for information to enable him make a purchase decision. For example, a consumer may get involved in smartphones when he or she wants to buy a phone. However, the interest on smartphones fades when the consumer purchase a smartphone of his choice. There are instances where consumers report their interest towards a certain offering or decision. In such instances, the consumer exhibits felt involvement and feels motivated towards making decisions regarding certain offerings. A consumer gets involved in offerings that he or she has had a psychological experience with (Samli 131). Thus, felt involvement arises from a historical perspective of the consumer about a product. For example, a consumer may form a positive opinion about a car that he or she has witnessed winning car races. Cognitive involvement occurs when a consumer is keen on understanding the offers in the market before making a purchase decision. The consumer then compares the information against his goals and makes a wise decision. In essence, cognitive involvement treats information gathering as part of the objectives off the consumer. For example, a consumer interested in a Ford